Effet de l altitude sur le corps

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Contents of Article

SummaryIntroductionWhat is année Elevation training Mask?Do key Training Masks enhance Performance?Future ResearchConclusionAbout the AuthorReferencesComments
Summary

Several approaches et modalities have been used venir simulate altitude training at sea level. Thé convenience de these methods et the benefits nous both aerobic and anaerobic capacity have increased the number of athletes and non-athletes that usage these approaches. Among the roman methods, auto Elevation training Mask is a maker that is claimed venir simulate the benefits of altitude training. Moreover, a higher number of upstream athletes ont started utilizing them in search of a competitive advantage/edge. Whether auto Elevation cultivate Mask works as it is declared has to be intensively debated and recent studies have shown inconclusive results.

Keywords: key Training Mask, altitude training, VO2max, Hypoxia, Hypoxic, Normobaric, Hypobaric hypoxia, Normobaric hypoxia, Elevation/altitude training, pulmonary resistance training device, sports science


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Introduction

Before conditions météorologiques begin, it is significativement to clarification some de the common terminologies which will be existing throughout this article:

Hypoxia – is a state where auto tissue demand du oxygen exceeds thé supply of oxygen.Hypoxic – is described as breathing a gas mixture which contains less 보다 21% oxygen.Normobaric – is a state of normal barometric push equivalent à that at sea level.Hypobaric hypoxia – is a état where low pressure and reduced oxygen access is existing (e.g. High-altitude).Normobaric hypoxia – is a etat where normalement pressure but reduced oxygen ease of access is current at terrestrial la taille (e.g. Simulated altitude).Elevation/altitude training – is a training an approach used in an environment v a diminished partial pressure de oxygen. Auto aim is parce que le the corps to develop a better amount de erythropoietin (EPO), i beg your pardon increases the red du sang cells produced in auto body.

Exercising aerobically <1> and anaerobically <2, 3> at la taille has to be proven à increase VO2max, oui well oui enhancing many différent physiological ajustements (e.g. Enhanced muscular power et hypertrophy). Several approaches and modalities have therefore to be utilised à simulate hauteur training, including normobaric hypoxia par nitrogen dilution (hypoxic department); supplemental oxygen; hypoxic sleeping devices; et intermittent hypoxic exposure <4>. Furthermore, simulated hauteur training has come to be increasingly popular for its convenience as opposed to a cold environment, harsh terrain, et low-oxygen press that frequently accompanies high-altitude training <4>.

In previous years, auto various devices used to induce hypoxia has been expensive, however, with the purpose ns making this modality ns training obtainable to thé broad public, new and more affordable devices have been introduced to simulate thé same effects ont elevation cultivate in a more familiar atmosphere <1>. Doing haricot de soja makes ce more convenient for athletes to importer similar results without having venir travel to high-altitude atmospheres <4>.

One ns these devices, auto infamous elevation Training Mask (ETM), is said à simulate altitude and à induce a normobaric hypoxic condition, or minimise auto amount of aéronautiques allowed to be spend by année individual <1>. An ETM is a patented pulmonary resistance training maker that is at this time a pioneer nous the market. This device covers the user’s mouth et restricts air intake into dual channels and has année additional vent for the discharge du exhaled air. Additionally, auto mask contains a variety ns adjustable resistance caps, oui well oui three adjustable couler valves. Furthermore, auto individual have the right to progressively increase auto resistance to simulate indigenous 900 à 5,400 meters over sea level <4>.


What is an Elevation training Mask?

The elevation training mask (ETM), additionally known as an altitude mask or ventilatory training mask, claims à enhance athletic performance passant par increasing endurance and VO2max; in addition à improving lung duty <5>. Thé ETM is also said à simulate hauteur and venir induce a normobaric hypoxic condition <1>.

The ETM provides adjustable resistances during figurants with a collection resistance conditions météorologiques expiration in order to simulate high-altitude cultivate (between 914m à 5,486m). The conception of thé mask restricts the oxygen circulation using couler valves that limit auto amount of air entering the mask, et therefore, thé lungs <5>.

Furthermore, it is suggested that the device have the right to increase endurance and VO2max, ont well oui improve lung function <5>. Divers common claims often used pour marketing thé ETM space that it:

Simulates training at altitudeStrengthens thé respiratory musclesIncrease stamina et improve endurance (aerobic performance)Increases strength et power (anaerobic performance)

As a result du these claims, nous will now delve into the scientific research et determine si any du them room true et if the ETM can have a positive effect conditions météorologiques athletic performance.


Do elevation Training Masks improve Performance?

In this section ns the article, nous will currently discuss et dissect auto claims made about auto ETM et whether jaune not it can actually enhance athletic performance.

Simulates cultivate at altitude

A usual misconception amongst users du the “elevation training mask” is that the ETM simulates altitude by creating a hypobaric (reduced partial pressure de oxygen) atmosphere <6>. Parce que le this to happen, however, the mask must oui a mechanism to decrease partial pressure ns oxygen and therefore induce a hypoxic state throughout exercise <6>. Wearing auto ETM go not create a hypoxic stimulus good enough venir elicit thé necessary physiologic responses skilled at true key <6, 7> however, much more research is needed venir identify thé specific physiological mechanisms that room elicited passant par this device <7>.

Although inconclusive, the ETM’s affleurer valve system and resistance caps can reduce breathing frequency throughout exercise, which deserve to potentially result in arterial hypoxemia (i.e. Low-levels ns oxygen in auto blood). This, in addition to a rebreathing de expired carbon dioxide, room likely to be responsible parce que le the subsequent shift de the oxygen-dissociation curve (Figure 1 – <6>).

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Oxygen-dissociation curve


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Figure 1. The haemoglobin–oxygen séparation curve <6>.


The haemoglobin–oxygen séparation curve is a graphical representation ns the relationship in between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure. This depiction helps us to understand thé underlying processes of oxygen transportation to the tissues <8>.

Strengthens thé respiratory muscles

In heat with thé aforementioned, ce has been said that fairly than acting as a simulation of high-altitude, auto peripheral aviation resistance generated passant par the ETM pouvez directly souligner breathing musculature, therefore, acting more as a respiratory muscle maintain (RMT) device <6>. In theory, RMT may induce respiratory tract muscle fatigue and increase respiratory tract muscle strength, lung capacity, and oxygen efficiency over temps <5>.

It is said that RMT pouvez improve respiratory tract muscle strength et endurance oui a an outcome of année increase in to move oxidative adaptation <9>, which, in turn, deserve to lead venir a delayed onset of metabolic acidosis <11>. Auto resulting lower-levels of du sang lactate throughout exercise, oui well oui the lessened perception du respiratory effort after RMT, may ultimately command to an increase in physical performance <10>.

In addition, wearing thé ETM may result in far-ranging increases in ventilatory threshold (VT) et power output at VT. Providing this, non changes ont been found in haematological variables avant or after training. This suggests that auto ETM functions more like a RMT 보다 a tool that simulates high-altitude cultivate <5>.

Having claimed this, there is right now ambiguous data supporting the RMT oui a potential method venir enhance physical performance. Numerous findings suggest that improvements in RMT in respiratory tract muscle role are no transferable à VO2max or endurance practice capacity <9, 10, 11>. Over there is little knowledge neighboring RMT in auto literature about its benefits nous exercise performance, jaune its effects conditions météorologiques respiratory parameters <10, 11>.


Increase stamina and improve endurance (aerobic performance)

Using thé ETM has displayed to cause arterial hypoxemia, but in a different means compared venir real altitude training. Using the mask reasons inadequate ventilation, resulting in an imbalance in between oxygen uptake and CO2 removal, and can, therefore, lead to hyperventilation. This, in turn, causes thé ETM venir increase the perceived exertion when training <7>.

Furthermore, once attempting à use auto ETM in order à increase an individual’s VO2max, studies ont shown there is no conclusion results. à la example, some studies have found ne sont pas significant distinction in VO2max de wearing the mask <4, 12>. Nous the other hand, autre study found année increase in VO2max in topics wearing thé mask, marqué importantly, cette also found improvements in those that did not wear auto ETM <5>.

It has additionally been declared that the ETM does not elicit a response for improving cardiorespiratory fitness <1>. In line with this, as the ETM does no simulate an altitude environment, auto desired effects ns high-altitude cultivate (e.g. Rise in red du sang cells) will not exist <1>. Ont a result, wearing thé ETM in training setups with thé purpose ns increasing stamina and improving endurance is not sustained with conclusive evidence.

Increases strength et power (anaerobic performance)

Finally, ETM is claimed à help athletes achieve better performance throughout high-intensity term training et strength training, under auto assumption that oxygen restriction pouvez result in adaptation relating to année enhanced buffering volume <6>.

This is additionally currently inconclusive et more study is needed venir know si the ETM would compromise the ability to train at intensities high enough venir elicit such ajustements <6>. Moreover, its use does appear venir negatively affecter peak velocity throughout both auto back squat et the bench push exercises, which pouvez attenuate maintain outcomes over temps <6>.

Whether strength training under hypoxic conditions can improve puissance has freshly been studied v promising results in terms du hypertrophy et muscular puissance <2, 3, 13>. Additionally, resistance training during hypoxic exposure has been shown à contribute venir advanced fibre-type recruitment that pouvez contribute to greater boosts in maximal toughness <14>.

However, in terms of the ETM et strength training, limite research is easily accessible regarding adaptation in strength et power performance when using thé ETM. A study published in 2017 suggested that wearing the ETM if performing a strength training séances appears venir not seul hinder the ability venir maintain working velocity during the bouts, marqué also affect thé athlete’s ratings du alertness and focus for the job <6>.


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Credit: Yann le Meur


Future Research

More research study is needed à clarify the specific effects of the ETM nous the different claims used for its marketing. Pour example, research is needed à clarify thé following:

The true mechanisms behind the simulated altitude training et how similar/effective cette is contrasted to other hypobaric methods.The partnership between auto ETM et athletic puissance (e.g. Endurance and strength) et how auto different features that room enhanced passant par the mask serve for a meilleur performance.Which athletes/ sports may benefit the most native this maintain method?
Conclusion

Although much more research is needed, it seems that auto ETM works more ont a respiratory tract muscle training an equipment than ont an la taille simulator. Moreover, there is still limite research concerning auto aerobic et anaerobic services of hauteur training at sea-level with the use of année ETM. Furthermore, the espacer in knowledge additionally extends to the effects of ETM conditions météorologiques long-term health et cardiorespiratory fitness. Despite thé claims made passant par the ETM manufactures and marketers in terms de improved endurance et strength capacities, auto effectiveness de the ETM has been intensively debated and recent studies ont shown there is no conclusion results.

Finally, also though a larger number of elite and non-elite athletes ont started to use the ETM to try et gain a compete edge, it is critical that they recognize the scientifiquement behind auto technology and whether or not they ont actually to be shown à work before using and marketing these commodities themselves.


What now?

Some coaches think that analysis one éléments will do them an adeptes on sports Science. Here’s why castle wrong…

Sports scientifiquement entails many, numerous topics. Par choosing à simply read up nous Elevation maintain Masks et ignore auto sea de other cardinal Sports de manière scientifique topics, amie run thé risk de being detrimental venir your athlete’s success et not realising your full potential.

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To make tu an expert coach et make your life ont easy as possible, conditions météorologiques highly suggest amie now check out this article on Heart rate Variability.